Aerial view of campus with Williamsport, the Susquehanna River and Bald Eagle Mountain as a backdrop

Anthropology and Sociology (ANTH, SOC)

Professor: Ross  
Associate Professors: Adams, McCall (Chair)
Assistant Professor:  Munson
Instructors:  A. Kurtz, Scholnick

Majors: Anthropology, Medical Sociology, Sociology

  • Courses required for either Anthropology, Sociology: 10
  • Courses required for Medical Sociology: 11
  • Math prerequisite (not counted in major) for Medical Sociology, Sociology: Math 123
  • Capstone requirement for Anthropology:  ANTH 447
  • Capstone requirement for Medical Sociology, Sociology:  SOC 430
  • Minors: Anthropology, Human Services, Sociology

The Anthropology and Sociology Department offers majors in anthropology, medical sociology, and sociology. Students may not double major in Medical Sociology and Sociology. Regardless of major, students may minor in human services.

ANTHROPOLOGY (ANTH)

Major Requirements

  1.   Five Core Courses: 
      ANTH 101     Ancient Bodies, Modern Lives
      ANTH 102     Patterns in Prehistory
      ANTH 103     Cultural Anthropology
      ANTH 344     Anthropological Theory
      ANTH 447     Anthropological Research

  2.   Five Elective Courses:
      ANTH electives: two additional courses with an ANTH prefix, numbered 200 or above
      ARCH elective:  any additional course with an ARCH prefix, numbered 200 or above,
                  may not be taken as ANTH with the same number
      Any two additional courses from:  ANTH; ARCH; SOC; BIO 222; MATH 123; or ant FRN, GERM, or SPAN course numbered 221 or above

Capstone Requirement

All majors must successfully complete ANTH 447.

Diversity and Writing Courses

The following courses satisfy the Global Cultural Diversity Requirement: ANTH 101, 102, 103, 210, 230, 232, 233, 310, 311, 320, 334, and 344. The following courses, when scheduled as W courses, count toward the Writing Requirement: ANTH 210, 230, 232, 233, 310, and 311.

Minor Requirements

A minor in Anthropology requires two courses from ANTH 101, 102, and 103;  one ANTH course numbered 300 or above; and two additional ANTH or ARCH courses numbered 200 or above.

101
ANCIENT BODIES, MODERN LIVES
Serves as an introduction to Biological/Physical Anthropology by examining the fundamental questions surrounding human biological diversity and the origins of our species. Drawing on fossil evidence and primate studies, this course explores the latest anthropological research related to human evolution, including discussions of the adaptive advantages of bipedalism and neural complexity. Contemporary issues of human population diversity are also considered, including the relationship between environmental conditions and phenotypical variation, the interplay between social/cultural practices and human physiology, and questions related to public health. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement.

102
PATTERNS IN PREHISTORY
Serves as an introduction to Archaeology. This course is an overview of world prehistory using the archaeological record to trace human cultural developments across the globe. This course traces the milestones of the human experience from the early beginnings of modern humans to hunter-gatherer developments to the origins of agriculture and urbanization. Students explore particular cultural sequences in specific regions and evaluate commonalities as well as differences between these ancient societies. Students gain insights into what archaeology is and how archaeologists obtain information that leads to reconstructions of past life ways. Through this course, students gain a foundation in understanding past societies and how the past influenced and shaped the diversity of modern societies that exist today. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement.

103
CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY
Serves as an introduction to Cultural Anthropology. Cultural anthropology seeks to explain the diversity of human societies, while looking for commonalities across them. Serves as a general introduction to the field of cultural anthropology, including an introduction to the history of anthropological research and the practice of ethnography. Topics include kinship, race, globalization, gender, social status, identity, and violence. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement.

210
TALKING TRASH: ARCHAEOLOGY OF EVERYDAY LIFE
Examines the material remains and built environments that are the product of people’s everyday life. Focusing on the household as a central analytical unit, students investigate the residential spaces and things that people produce and consume in domestic contexts in order to study past demographic patterns, social interactions and status, subsistence practices, divisions of labor, as well as group ideology and communal practices in ancient human societies. Case studies drawn from ethnography and archaeology examine the patterns of everyday life in the ancient Near East, Mediterranean, and the Americas. Cross-listed as ARCH 210. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement. Alternate years.

230 
ANTHROPOLOGY OF LATIN AMERICA
Examines the history of anthropology in Latin America, from early concerns with Native American populations in Central and South America to current concerns with cultural plurality, neoliberal economic reforms, and environmental conservation. Topics include European colonization, globalization, gender, and medical anthropology. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement. Alternate years.

232
ENVIRONMENTAL ANTHROPOLOGY
Anthropologists examine the interaction between people and the environment from many different perspectives. This course surveys several of these approaches to understanding human/environment interactions with particular emphasis on human adaptation to the environment across cultures and through time, as well as the current concerns with environmental sustainability and the social context of the environmental movement. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement. Alternate years.

233
ARCHAEOLOGY OF RITUAL
In-depth cross-cultural study of the archaeological remains of ancient ritual practices. While the meaning of ancient rituals is not directly accessible to us today, archaeologists study the spaces, objects, actors, and material residues of past ritual practices to understand their role and significance in past societies. Case studies drawn from the ancient Near East, Mediterranean, and the Americas. Cross-listed as ARCH 233 and REL 233. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement. Alternate years.

310
FOOD AND CULTURE
Surveys the growing body of scholarship in food studies and the anthropology of food. Food production and consumption are examined in terms of human biology, culture, and social status across time from our evolutionary ancestors to the present day. Topics include systems of food production, the social and cultural context of agricultural settings, the rise of industrial agriculture and fast food, and social movements based on ideas about food, such as the organic and local food movements. Prerequisite:  One 4-credit ANTH course or junior or senior standing. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement. Alternate years.

311 
POWER AND PRESTIGE IN THE PAST
In-depth analysis of the development and operation of state-level societies from anthropological and archaeological perspectives. Topics include the emergence of social inequality, definitions of state and power, political organization, collective action, and the role of ideology in complex societies. Case studies drawn from the ancient Near East, Mediterranean, and the Americas.  Cross-listed as ARCH 311. Prerequisite: One 4-credit ANTH course or junior or senior standing. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement. Alternate years.

320
SPECIAL TOPICS IN ANTHROPOLOGY
Study of selected anthropological problems, theorists, or movements. Sample topics include art and society; ethnography and ethnology; applied anthropology; anthropology of gender, culture and agriculture; and Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Prerequisite: One 4-credit ANTH course or junior or senior standing. May be repeated for credit with consent of department when topics are different. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement. Alternate years.

334
ECONOMIC ANTHROPOLOGY
There is a tremendous diversity in how human societies organize themselves for production, distribution, and consumption. Both theoretical and practical, this course is an examination of the ways people organize themselves around these tasks. Students concerned about real-world business problems re-examine desire, decision-making, and the impact of culture on economic behavior, while anthropological theories are considered in terms of their practical utility for understanding observed economic behavior. Topics include the origins of economic systems, ancient economies, colonialism, globalization, and international commerce. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement. Alternate years.

344
ANTHROPOLOGICAL THEORY
Addresses the history of theory in anthropology, with a greater emphasis on theories used within cultural anthropology, although theoretical trends in archaeology, anthropological linguistics, and biological/physical anthropology are included to a more limited degree. The course is reading intensive and broad, including work by Franz Boas, Eric Wolf, Clifford Geertz, and Pierre Bourdieu among others. Prerequisite: One 4-credit ANTH course or junior or senior standing. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement. Alternate years. 

401
FIELD ARCHAEOLOGY 
This field course acquaints students with the basic techniques and procedures used in modern archaeology through intensive hands-on fieldwork. Students gain practical experience in archaeological excavation or survey and assist with data recording and artifact processing. Site visits and lectures relating the local archaeology to its larger cultural context are also usually included. Cross-listed as ARCH 401, and as REL 401 for some Mediterranean and Near Eastern digs with approval. Prerequisite: ARCH 110 or consent of instructor. Special fees apply. May Term or Summer Sessions only.

403
LABORATORY METHODS IN ARCHAEOLOGY
Acquaints students with the basic methods and techniques used to analyze archaeological materials. Students gain practical experience in the description, inventory, and analysis of artifacts, processing of specimens, and data documentation. Includes lectures, laboratory, and museum visits. Cross-listed as ARCH 403. Prerequisite: ARCH 110 or consent of instructor. Special fees apply. May Term or Summer Sessions.

447
ANTHROPOLOGICAL RESEARCH
Students complete an original quantitative or qualitative research project utilizing one of the many data collection strategies available to anthropologists such as field work, excavation, artifact analysis, content analysis, surveys, qualitative interviews,  and participant observation. Topic selection is of individual student’s choice. Prerequisite: ANTH 344.

448 
PRACTICUM IN ANTHROPOLOGY
Provides students with the opportunity to apply a socio-cultural perspective to any of a number of organizational settings. As the basis for the course, students arrange an internship. At the same time as the student is contributing time and talent to the organization in question, he/she will also be observing, from a socio-cultural perspective, the events, activities, structure, and dynamics of the organization. These experiences are supplemented by academic readings, a regularly scheduled seminar, and the keeping of a detailed field journal. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. May be repeated once for credit with consent of instructor when projects are different.

470-479
INTERNSHIP  
Anthropology internship experiences, such as with the Lycoming County Historical Museum, are available.

N80-N89
INDEPENDENT STUDY
An opportunity to pursue specific interests and topics not usually covered in regular courses. Through a program of readings and tutorials, the student will have the opportunity to pursue these interests and topics in greater depth than is usually possible in a regular course.

490-491

INDEPENDENT STUDY FOR DEPARTMENTAL HONORS

SOCIOLOGY (SOC)

Major Requirements

  1.   Six Core Courses:
      SOC 110         Introduction to Sociology
      SOC 240         Sociology of Race and Ethnicity
      SOC 241         Sociology of Gender and Sexuality
      SOC 330         Research Methods I
      SOC 344         Sociological Theory
      SOC 430         Research Methods II

  2. Four Elective Courses:  
      
    SOC electives: any 4 SOC courses, excluding 222, 325, and 448.
      One course may be substituted by CJCR 300; ANTH 103, 210, 230, 310, 311, 334, 344; or WGST 300

MEDICAL SOCIOLOGY

Major Requirements

  1.   Seven Core Courses:
      
    SOC 110     Introduction to Sociology
      SOC 205     Demography
      either SOC 240 Race and Ethnicity or SOC 241 Gender and Sexuality
      SOC 310     Medical Sociology
      SOC 330     Research Methods I
      SOC 344     Sociological Theory
      SOC 430     Research Methods II

  2.   Four Elective Courses:  
      SOC elective: either SOC 210 OR 228
      Either BIO 105, 108, or 110
      Any course from:  ANTH 310; BIO 222, 321, 347; PHIL 219; PSY  242 or 342; REL 120

Capstone Requirement

All Sociology and Medical Sociology majors must successfully complete SOC 430.

Diversity and Writing Courses

The following courses satisfy the Domestic Cultural Diversity Requirement: SOC 110, 240, 241, and 334. The following courses satisfy the Global Cultural Diversity Requirement: SOC 205. The following courses, when scheduled as W courses, count toward the Writing Requirement: SOC 210, 222, 228, 231, and 330.

Minor Requirements

A minor in Human Services requires SOC 222, 325, and 448; SOC 240 or 241; and MATH 123 or 214. A practicum/internship within the major may be substituted for SOC 448, with permission of instructor.

A minor in Sociology requires SOC 110, 240 or 241, and three SOC electives, one of which must be 300 or higher.

110 
INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY 
An introduction to the problems, concepts, and methods in sociology today, including analysis of stratification, organization of groups and institutions, social movements, and deviants in social structure. Fulfills Domestic Cultural Diversity Requirement.

205 
DEMOGRAPHY 
Provides students with knowledge and skills to analyze the demographic composition of a population as well as the causes and consequences of population change. Emphasis is placed on conducting trend analysis and examining the relationships between social, economic, and demographic trends, by utilization of census statistics. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement. Alternate years.

210
SOCIOLOGY OF MENTAL HEALTH AND ILLNESS
An examination of the concepts of mental health and mental illness from a sociological perspective. Major issues addressed include a consideration of the meaning and implications of the term “mental illness,” an examination of the most important sociological and social psychological theories of mental illness and mental health, an examination of the social responses that American culture has traditionally afforded the condition of mental illness, and an analysis of historical and modern methods of treatment. Alternate years.

220
SOCIOLOGY OF FAMILY
Examines American families from a sociological perspective with particular emphasis on the interplay of family as it relates to other social institutions such as economic, political, educational, religious, and legal institutions. Addresses the multiple forms of family and examines racial, ethnic, and social class variations as well as family as a gendered institution and its implications for men’s and women’s lives.

222

INTRODUCTION TO HUMAN SERVICES
Intended for students interested in learning about, or entering, the human services profession. A review of the history, the range, and the goals of human services together with a survey of various strategies and approaches to human problems. Includes a community service component.

228
AGING AND SOCIETY
Analysis of cross-cultural characteristics of the aged as individuals and as members of groups. Emphasis is placed upon media portrayals as well as such variables as health, housing, socioeconomic status, personal adjustment, retirement, and social participation. Utilizes sociological, social psychological, and anthropological frames of reference in analysis and description of aging and its relationship to the individual and society. Alternate years.

231

SOCIOLOGY OF WAR AND THE MILITARY
Through an emphasis on the American military and American wars of the later 20th and early 21st centuries, this course examines the modern military as a social institution and includes discussion of the origins, nature, experience, social consequences, and future of warfare. Addresses implications and consequences of having rebuilt the American military following the Vietnam War with an all-volunteer force, including the demographic transformations, the military as employee recruiter, the planned reliance upon reserve forces, the impact on civilian-military relations, and the impact of fighting protracted wars with a volunteer force. Alternate years.

240
SOCIOLOGY OF RACE AND ETHNICITY 
Provides a study of racial/ethnic groups within the framework of American cultural values. An analysis includes historical, cultural, and social factors underlying racial/ethnic conflict. The course provides an analysis of the social construction of race/ethnicity and the social implications of those constructions.  Fulfills Domestic Cultural Diversity Requirement.

241
SOCIOLOGY OF GENDER AND SEXUALITY 
Focuses on cultural constructions of femininities and masculinities across cultures and throughout history. The course provides an analysis of theories of gender/sexuality differences, gender/sexuality as an organizing principle of social interactions, and the gendered/sexualized meaning of social institutions such as education, work, and military.  Fulfills Domestic Cultural Diversity Requirement. Alternate years.

305 
SOCIOLOGY OF LAW 
Examines law as a social institution involving an interactive process: on the one hand, law is created and maintained by human beings, and on the other hand, law provides the structure within which human beings develop values pertaining to justice and injustice. Examines how law is utilized to address social problems, settle disputes, and exert power over others. Specific attention is given to the legal social control of race, class, and gender. Addresses how law permeates all facets of life from personal identity to the development of domestic institutions to the governing of international relations. Prerequisite: SOC 110 or junior or senior standing. Alternate years. 

310
MEDICAL SOCIOLOGY   
Examines the social contexts of health, illness, and medicine. Prominence is given to the debates and contrasting perspectives that characterize the field of medical sociology. Topics include the social environmental and occupational factors in health and illness, the development of the health professions, ethical issues in medicine, healthcare reform, and the conundrum of managed care. In exploring these topics, emphasis is placed on how the socially constructed categories of gender, race/ethnicity, social class, and age relate with physical and mental health, illness, and health care. Prerequisite: Sophomore standing or higher. SOC 110 is recommended but not required. Alternate years.

320
SPECIAL TOPICS IN SOCIOLOGY
Study of selected sociological problems, theorists, or movements. Sample topics include sociology of education, environmental sociology, art and society, sociology of childhood, and media and culture. Prerequisite: SOC 110 or junior or senior standing. May be repeated for credit with consent of department when topics are different. Alternate years.

325
PROGRAM EVALUATION AND GRANT WRITING
Introduces a range of basic quantitative and qualitative research methods with emphasis on application of these to the evaluation of social programs. Topics include observational and qualitative methods, survey and interview (structured and unstructured) techniques, using data from records and archives, and data analysis. Students learn about the application of the research process and skills in all phases of assessing a social policy and developing a social program, including needs assessment, implementation analysis, and evaluation of policy or program effectiveness. In addition, a portion of the course covers the process of grant writing in the non-profit arena. The class completes either a community assessment or a program evaluation and prepares a grant application for a local non-profit human service organization. Prerequisites: SOC 222 and either MATH 123 or 214. Alternate years.

330
RESEARCH METHODS I
In studying the research process in sociology, attention is given to the process of designing and administering both qualitative and quantitative research. Students complete an original field work project in a public setting. Additionally, students learn to compile and analyze quantitative data through a statistical software package. Different methodological skills considered include field work, survey design, experiments, content analysis, use of secondary data analysis and existing statistics, and qualitative interviews. Prerequisites: SOC 110 and MATH 123.

334
AMERICAN IMMIGRATION
A course on US immigration and assimilation that encompasses America’s multicultural diversity and covers the historical significance of US immigration and the experience of immigrants from 1492 until the present day. Explores comparisons between when and why groups immigrate as well as their various successes and failures. Facilitates an increased understanding of cultural identity by providing a forum to discuss and better understand cultural differences; investigates the mechanisms and consequences of prejudice, oppression, and discrimination on American minority groups; and explores personal beliefs about human differences. Prerequisite: SOC 110 or junior or senior standing. Fulfills Domestic Cultural Diversity Requirement. Alternate years.

344
SOCIOLOGICAL THEORY
Delves into the heart of the discipline of sociology and the modes of thinking utilized in developing its substantive subfields such as social stratification, economic sociology, medical sociology, political sociology, legal sociology, and family sociology. Explores theoretical developments by both classical and contemporary sociologists who created and continue to create theoretical pathways to more fully understand the workings of society at both the macro- and micro-level. Spanning approximately 200 years of social thought, the course examines the ways in which social theorists tried—and continue to strive—to make sense of unsettling developing phenomena such as political revolutions, the industrial revolution, rapid urbanization, social movements, and globalization. Prerequisite: SOC 110. Alternate years.

430
RESEARCH METHODS II
Building on the research skills acquired during a first course in research methodology, students complete an original quantitative or qualitative research project utilizing one of the many data collection strategies available to sociologists such as field work, content analysis, surveys, qualitative interviews, experimental design, secondary data analysis, or program evaluation. Topic selection is of individual student’s choice.  Prerequisite:  SOC 330 or CJCR 343.

448
PRACTICUM IN SOCIOLOGY
Provides students with the opportunity to apply a socio-cultural perspective to any of a number of organizational settings. As the basis for the course, students arrange an internship. At the same time as the student is contributing time and talent to the organization in question, he/she will also be observing, from a socio-cultural perspective, the events, activities, structure, and dynamics of the organization. These experiences are supplemented by academic readings, a regularly scheduled seminar, and the keeping of a detailed field journal. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. May be repeated once for credit with consent of instructor when projects are different.

470-479
INTERNSHIP  
Interns in sociology typically work off campus with social service agencies under the supervision of administrators.

N80-N89
INDEPENDENT STUDY 
An opportunity to pursue specific interests and topics not usually covered in regular courses. Through a program of readings and tutorials, the student has the opportunity to pursue these interests and topics in greater depth than is usually possible in a regular course.

490-491
INDEPENDENT STUDY FOR DEPARTMENTAL HONORS