Modern Language Studies (MLS, FRN, GERM, SPAN)

Professors: Buedel, Kingery
Associate Professor: Cartal-Falk
Assistant Professors: Cagle (Chair), Cuya Gavilano, Guss
Instructors: Meeder, Ribitsch

  • Majors: French, German, Spanish
  • Courses required for all majors: 9, including study abroad (or substitutes)
  • Language prerequisite (not counted in major): FRN, GERM, or SPAN 101 and 102
  • Non-credit Colloquium: 2 semesters
  • Capstone requirement: MLS 449
  • Minors: French, German, Spanish

The study of modern languages and literatures offers opportunities to explore broadly the varieties of human experience and thought. It contributes both to personal and to international understanding by providing competence in a modern language and a critical acquaintance with the literature and culture of foreign peoples. A major can serve as a gateway to careers in business, education, government, journalism, publishing, social agencies, translating, and writing. It prepares for graduate work in literature or linguistics and the international fields of area studies, business, health, law, and politics.

Major Fields of Study

French, German, and Spanish are offered as major fields of study. The major consists of at least 36 credits of courses numbered 111 and above. See French, German, and Spanish sections below for specific requirements for each major. Students who intend to pursue graduate study in a modern language should take additional 300- and 400-level courses. The department encourages students to consider allied courses from related fields, a second major, or an interdisciplinary major such as International Studies.

MLS Core Language Requirements

French, German, and Spanish majors who are seeking language teacher certification are required to study abroad for a minimum of one semester. All other French, German, and Spanish majors must study abroad for a period of twelve continuous weeks. 

Students not pursuing teacher certification can opt out of the study abroad requirement by completing one of the following three options:

  • Major or minor in a second language.
  • Take 3 courses from the list below, with courses from at least two departments.

ANTH 229         Cultural Anthropology
ANTH 230         Anthropology of Latin America
ANTH 334         Economic Anthropology
ARHI 223          Survey of Art II: Renaissance to the Present in Western Culture
ARHI 331          Recent Developments in Art
ARHI 339          Gender and Identity in Art History
ARHI 349          Narrative in Art
HIST 217           20th Century Europe
HIST 221           Latin America
PSCI 140           Comparative Politics and Geography
PSCI 241           Politics of Developing Countries
PSCI 242           Human Rights

  • Complete 36 credits in the major at the 111 level or above, including study abroad for at least 8 continuous weeks, plus complete two courses listed under option 2.

Study Abroad Programs

Lycoming offers affiliate programs in Buenos Aires, Argentina (CAPA); San José, Costa Rica and Cuenca, Ecuador (Estudio Sampere); Grenoble, France (Centre Universitaire d'Etudes Françaises); Bamberg, Germany (Otto-Friedrich-Universität); Madrid, Salamanca, and Alicante, Spain (Estudio Sampere). Other department-approved programs are also available, and students may also study abroad through non-affiliate programs. Students who intend to study abroad should begin planning with their major advisor by the first week of the semester prior to departure. To qualify, students must have sophomore standing or higher, overall and major GPAs of 2.50, and positive recommendations from faculty in the major.

Teacher Certification

Students interested in teacher certification should refer to the Department of Education listing.

Modern Languages and Literature (MLS)

338
SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION AND PEDAGOGY
Explores contemporary theories and practices of second language acquisition. Emphasis placed on the Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century. Students write classroom observations, create and teach mini-lessons, conduct research, and devise a unit plan. Designed for future teachers of one or more languages and normally taken in the junior year. Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Taught in English. Does not count toward majors in French, German, or Spanish.

449
JUNIOR-SENIOR COLLOQUIUM
This colloquium offers French, German, and Spanish majors the opportunity to meet regularly with peers, professors, and invited guest speakers to discuss linguistic, literary, cultural, and pedagogical topics. Each student is required to deliver at least one oral presentation of approximately 20 minutes in a language other than English in their second semester. Prerequisite: junior standing. The department recommends that, when possible, students take one semester of 449 during their junior year and another semester during their senior year. Taught in English. The Colloquium will meet a minimum of 6 times during the semester. Non-credit course.

French (FRN)

Major Requirements

A major consists of a minimum of 36 credits of FRN courses numbered 111 and above or approved courses from a Study Abroad program, including at least eight credits from the 400 level, not including MLS 449. French majors must pass at least two semesters of MLS 449 and study abroad for at least 12 continuous weeks (or complete one of the other three options listed under MLS Core Language Major Requirements). Students who wish to be certified for teaching must complete the major with at least a 3.00 GPA; pass FRN 221, 222, 311, 418, and MLS 338 (the latter two courses with a grade of B or better); and study abroad for a minimum of one semester.

Capstone Requirement

Majors are required to pass two semesters of MLS 449 (Junior-Senior Colloquium).

Diversity and Writing Courses

The following courses satisfy the Global Cultural Diversity Requirement: FRN 221, 222, 311, 315, 321, and 426. The following courses, when scheduled as W courses, count toward the Writing Requirement: FRN 222, 412, 418, and 426.

Minor Requirements

A minor in French consists of at least 20 credits of courses numbered 221 and above. Eight of the credits must be numbered 300 or above. French 111 and 112 may be counted towards the minor, but then the minor must consist of at least 24 credits, 8 of which must be numbered 300 or above.

101
ELEMENTARY FRENCH I
Students acquire novice-level French proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Examination of French and Francophone cultures encourages students to view diverse peoples as different yet interrelated.

102
ELEMENTARY FRENCH II
Students continue to acquire novice-level French proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Examination of French and Francophone cultures encourages students to view diverse peoples as different yet interrelated. Prerequisite: FRN 101 or equivalent.

111
INTERMEDIATE FRENCH I
Intensive review and development of intermediate proficiency in all language skills. Focus on the development of interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational modes of communication. Cultural and short literary readings are broader in scope, and the study of French and Francophone films is incorporated in the curriculum. Prerequisite: FRN 102 or equivalent.

112
INTERMEDIATE FRENCH II
Continued review and development of intermediate proficiency in all language skills. Focus on the development of interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational modes of communication. Cultural and short literary readings are broader in scope, and the study of French and Francophone films is incorporated in the curriculum. In addition a task-based component is featured in this course. Prerequisite: FRN 111 or equivalent.

221
FRENCH CONVERSATION AND REVIEW
Refinement and improvement in the development of interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational modes of communication with a view to increasing proficiency toward the advanced level. Conversations and writing focus on contemporary cultural readings, literary texts, and film. Phonetics, pronunciation, and grammar review. Prerequisite: FRN 112 or equivalent. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement.

222
FRENCH COMPOSITION AND REVIEW
Students practice different genres of composition, while learning to differentiate between writing and editing. Readings enhance linguistic and cultural knowledge with a view to increasing proficiency toward the advanced level. Includes the study of French stylistics, semantics, syntax, and grammar. Prerequisite: FRN 221. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement.

311
FRANCOPHONE CULTURES
Introduces students to French-speaking peoples, and their values, customs, and institutions, with reference to the geographic and historical forces governing present-day France, the Maghreb, Sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, and Quebec. Prerequisite: FRN 222 or consent of instructor. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement. Alternate years.

315
INTRODUCTION TO FRENCH AND FRANCOPHONE LITERATURES
Diverse readings draw from both French and Francophone literatures and represent significant literary movements from the Middle Ages to the present. Designed to acquaint the student with literary concepts and terms, genre study, and the basic skills of literary analysis. Prerequisite: FRN 222 or consent of instructor. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement. Alternate years.

321
SPECIAL TOPICS IN FRENCH AND FRANCOPHONE LITERATURE AND CULTURE
Examination of significant cultural or literary topics concerning the French-speaking world. Possible topics include: Francophone short stories, French theatre, French-speaking women writers, French and Francophone poetry, Paris and the Avant-garde, Francophone cinema, Francophone Africa, In Search of Creoleness. Prerequisites: FRN 222 or consent of instructor. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor when topics are different. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement. Alternate years.

412
FRENCH LITERATURE OF THE 19TH CENTURY
The dimensions of the Romantic sensibility: Musset, Hugo, Madame de Staël, Vigny, Balzac, Stendhal, Sand; realism and naturalism in the novels of Flaubert and Zola; and the poetry of Baudelaire, Desbordes-Valmore, Rimbaud, Verlaine, and Mallarmé. Prerequisite: One French course at the 300 or 400 level or consent of instructor. Alternate years.

418
ADVANCED LANGUAGE PRACTICE
Intensive practice for advanced students who wish to further improve their spoken and written French. Includes work in oral comprehension, pronunciation, composition, and textual analysis. Also includes an introduction to linguistics, including phonology, morphology, semantics, and syntax. Prerequisites: Either two French courses at the 300 level, one at the 400 level, or consent of instructor. Alternate years.

426
SPECIAL TOPICS IN FRENCH AND FRANCOPHONE LITERATURE AND CULTURE
Readings of important works and movements in French and/or Francophone literature and culture. Reading selections may focus on a particular genre or they may be a combination of drama, poetry, and prose. Cultural topics may be explored with an interdisciplinary approach. Possible topics include Medieval literature, the Baroque period, the epistolary novel, Romanticism, 20th century poetry, French cinema, children’s literature, surrealism and the avant-garde, the Francophone novel, French literature and art between the wars. Prerequisites: One French course at the 300 or 400 level or consent of instructor. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor when topics are different. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement. Alternate years.

427
FRENCH LITERATURE OF THE 20TH CENTURY
Explores the major movements of the 20th century, beginning with the poetry of the Surrealists, continuing with the Theatre of the Absurd, and culminating in the New Novel.  Representative writers include Proust, Breton, Céline, Camus, Duras, Saurraute, and Le Clézio. Prerequisite: One French course at the 300 or 400 level or consent of instructor. Alternate years.

470-479
INTERNSHIP  

N80-N89
INDEPENDENT STUDY 
Examples of recent studies in French include translation, Existentialism, the classical period, enlightenment literature, and Saint-Exupery.

490-491
INDEPENDENT STUDY FOR DEPARTMENTAL HONORS  

German (GERM)

Major Requirements

A major consists of a minimum of 36 credits of GERM courses numbered 111 and above or approved courses from a Study Abroad program, including at least eight credits from the 400 level, not including MLS 449. German majors must pass at least two semesters of MLS 449 and study abroad for at least 12 continuous weeks (or complete one of the other three options listed under MLS Core Language Major Requirements). Students who wish to be certified for teaching must complete the major with at least a 3.00 GPA; pass GERM 221, 222, 311, 418, and MLS 338 (the latter two courses with a grade of B or better); and study abroad for a minimum of one semester. All majors are encouraged to enroll in MUS 336 and THEA 335.

Capstone Requirement

Majors are required to pass two semesters of MLS 449 (Junior-Senior Colloquium).

Diversity and Writing Courses

The following courses satisfy the Global Cultural Diversity Requirement: GERM 221, 222, 311, 315, 321, and 426. The following courses, when scheduled as W courses, count toward the Writing Requirement: GERM 222, 411, 418, and 426.

Minor Requirements

A minor in German consists of at least 20 credits of courses numbered 221 and above. Eight of the credits must be numbered 300 or above. German 111 and 112 may be counted towards the minor, but then the minor must consist of at least 24 credits, 8 of which must be numbered 300 or above.

101
ELEMENTARY GERMAN I
Students acquire novice-level German proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Examination of German cultural products encourages students to view diverse peoples as different yet interrelated.

102
ELEMENTARY GERMAN II
Students continue to acquire novice-level German proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Examination of German cultural products encourages students to view diverse peoples as different yet interrelated. Prerequisite: GERM 101 or equivalent.

111
INTERMEDIATE GERMAN I
Intensive review and development of intermediate proficiency in all language skills. Focus on the development of interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational modes of communication. Cultural and short literary readings are broader in scope and the study of German films is incorporated in the curriculum. Prerequisite: GERM 102 or equivalent.

112
INTERMEDIATE GERMAN II
Continued review and development of intermediate proficiency in all language skills. Focus on the development of interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational modes of communication. Cultural and short literary readings are broader in scope and the study of German films is incorporated in the curriculum. In addition a task-based component is featured in this course. Prerequisite: GERM 111 or equivalent.

221
GERMAN CONVERSATION AND REVIEW
Refinement and improvement in the development of interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational modes of communication with a view to increasing proficiency toward the advanced level. Conversations and writing focus on contemporary films, cultural readings, and literary texts. Phonetics, pronunciation, and in-depth grammar review. Prerequisite: GERM 112 or equivalent. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement.

222
GERMAN COMPOSITION AND REVIEW
Intensive reading and writing program based largely on current topics in the German-speaking countries, and on literature, film, music, art, and other cultural products. Literary texts include two novels. Strong emphasis placed on reading comprehension and the further development of writing skills toward the advanced level. Prerequisite: GERM 221. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement.

311
MODERN GERMANY
Designed to familiarize students with social and political structures and cultural attitudes in contemporary German, Austrian, and Swiss society. Material may include newspaper articles, interviews, films, and readings in history, religion, anthropology, and the arts. Some attention is paid to the changing education system, to the family, and to events and ideas that have shaped German-speaking cultures. Prerequisite: GERM 221 or consent of instructor. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement. Alternate years.

315
INTRODUCTION TO GERMAN-LANGUAGE LITERATURE
Diverse readings draw from German, Swiss, and Austrian literature and represent significant literary movements from the Middle Ages to the present. Designed to acquaint the student with literary concepts and terms, genre study, and the basic skills of literary analysis. Prerequisite: GERM 222 or consent of instructor. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement. Alternate years.

321
SPECIAL TOPICS IN GERMAN LITERATURE AND CULTURE
Examination of significant cultural or literary topics concerning the German-speaking world. Possible topics include: the German Novelle, German theatre, the fairy tale, German poetry, German film, German art and culture. Prerequisite: GERM 222 or consent of instructor. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor when topics are different. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement. Alternate years.

411
THE NOVELLE
The German Novelle as a genre relating to various literary periods. Prerequisite: One German course at the 300 or 400 level or consent of instructor. Alternate years.

418
ADVANCED LANGUAGE PRACTICE
Intensive practice for advanced students who want to improve their spoken and written German. Includes work in oral comprehension, pronunciation, oral and written composition, translation, and the development of the language and its relationship to English. Also includes an introduction to linguistics, including phonology, morphology, semantics, and syntax. Prerequisite: GERM 222 or consent of instructor. Alternate years.

426
SPECIAL TOPICS IN GERMAN LITERATURE AND CULTURE
The study of important works and movements in German literature and culture. Reading
selections may focus on a particular genre or they may be a combination of drama, poetry, and prose. Cultural topics may be explored with an interdisciplinary approach. Possible topics include: Medieval literature, Romanticism, Classicism, fairy tales, Goethe, East and West Germany, the Weimar Republic, the Uncanny, post-reunification literature and film. Prerequisite: One German course at the 300 or 400 level or consent of instructor. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor when topics are different. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement. Alternate years.

470-479
INTERNSHIP 

N80-N89
INDEPENDENT STUDY 
Examples of recent studies in German include Classicism, Germanic Mythology, Hermann Hesse, the dramas of Frisch and Dürrenmatt.

490-491
INDEPENDENT STUDY FOR DEPARTMENTAL HONORS  

Spanish (SPAN)

Major Requirements

A major consists of 36 credits of SPAN courses numbered 111 and above or approved courses from a Study Abroad program. From courses numbered 315 or higher, one course must focus on literature or culture from Spain and one course must focus on literature or culture from Latin America. Some courses may count for either. Eight credits must be at the 400 level, not including MLS 449. Spanish majors must pass at least two semesters of MLS 449 and study abroad for at least 12 continuous weeks (or complete one of the other three options listed under MLS Core Language Major Requirements). Recommended course: HIST 221. Students who wish to be certified for teaching must complete the major with at least a 3.00 GPA; pass SPAN 221, 222, 311, 418, and MLS 338 (the latter two with a grade of B or better); and study abroad for a minimum of one semester.

Capstone Requirement

Majors are required to pass two semesters of MLS 449 (Junior-Senior Colloquium).

Diversity and Writing Courses

The following courses satisfy the Global Cultural Diversity Requirement: SPAN 221, 222, 311, 315, 321, and 426. The following courses, when scheduled as W courses, count toward the Writing Requirement: SPAN 315, 323, 418, 424, and 426. 

Minor Requirements

A minor in Spanish consists of at least 20 credits of courses numbered 221 and above. Eight of the credits must be numbered 300 or above. Spanish 111 and 112 may be counted towards the minor, but then the minor must consist of at least 24 credits, 8 of which must be numbered 300 or above.

101
ELEMENTARY SPANISH I
Students acquire novice-level Spanish proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Examination of Spanish and Latin American cultural products encourages students to view diverse peoples as different yet interrelated.

102
ELEMENTARY SPANISH II
Students continue to acquire novice-level Spanish proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Examination of Spanish and Latin American cultural products encourages students to view diverse peoples as different yet interrelated. Prerequisite: SPAN 101 or equivalent.

111
INTERMEDIATE SPANISH I
Intensive review and development of intermediate proficiency in all language skills. Focus on the development of interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational modes of communication. Cultural and short literary readings are broader in scope, and the study of Spanish and Latin American films is incorporated in the curriculum. Prerequisite: SPAN 102 or equivalent.

112
INTERMEDIATE SPANISH II
Continued review and development of intermediate proficiency in all language skills. Focus on the development of interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational modes of communication. Cultural and short literary readings are broader in scope, and the study of Spanish and Latin American films is incorporated in the curriculum. In addition a task-based component is featured in this course. Prerequisite: SPAN 111 or equivalent.

221
SPANISH CONVERSATION AND REVIEW
Refinement and improvement in the development of interpersonal, interpretive, and presentational modes of communication with a view to increasing proficiency toward the advanced level. Conversations and writing focus on contemporary cultural readings, literary texts, and film. Also includes an in-depth grammar review. Prerequisite: SPAN 112 or equivalent. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement.

222
SPANISH COMPOSITION AND REVIEW
Intensive reading and writing program based largely on current topics in Spanish-speaking countries, and on literature, film, music, art, and other cultural products. Literary texts include poetry, short fiction, and a novel. Strong emphasis placed on reading comprehension and the further development of writing skills toward the advanced level. Prerequisite: SPAN 221. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement.

311
HISPANIC CULTURE
To introduce students to Spanish-speaking peoples, and their values, customs, and institutions, with reference to the geographic and historical forces governing present-day Spain and Latin America. Prerequisite: SPAN 222 or consent of instructor. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement. Alternate years.

315
INTRODUCTION TO HISPANIC LITERATURES
Diverse readings include both Spanish and Latin American literatures designed to acquaint the student with significant Hispanic authors and literary movements.  Designed to acquaint the student with genre study, literary terms in Spanish, literary concepts and forms, as well as the basic skills of literary analysis. Fulfills the major requirement as either a course in the literature of Spain or in the literature of Latin America. Prerequisite: SPAN 222 or consent of instructor. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement. Alternate years.

321
SPECIAL TOPICS IN HISPANIC LITERATURE AND CULTURE
Examination of significant cultural or literary topics concerning the Spanish-speaking world. Possible topics include Latin American short stories, Spanish theatre, Latin American women writers, Hispanic film, Hispanic art. Depending on topic, this course may fulfill the major requirement as either a course in the literature of Spain or in the literature of Latin America.  Prerequisite: SPAN 222 or consent of instructor. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor when topics are different. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement. Alternate years.

335
TRANSLATION
Examination of technical issues related to Spanish and English lexical, syntactical, and semantic differences as well as the various cultural issues involved in the act of translation. Students are asked to translate a variety of literary and non-literary texts and to reflect upon and discuss both the theory and practice of translation. Special emphasis is given to increasing Spanish vocabulary and perfecting Spanish grammar. Prerequisite: SPAN 222 or consent of instructor. Alternate years.

418
ADVANCED LANGUAGE PRACTICE
Intensive practice for advanced students who wish to improve their spoken and written Spanish. Includes work in oral comprehension, pronunciation, and oral and written composition. Also includes an introduction to linguistics, including phonology, morphology, semantics, and syntax. Prerequisite:  Either two Spanish courses at the 300 level, one at the 400 level, or consent of instructor. Alternate years.

426
SPECIAL TOPICS IN HISPANIC LITERATURE AND CULTURE
Readings of important works in Spanish and/or Latin American literature. Reading selections may focus on a particular genre or they may be a combination of drama, poetry, and prose. Cultural topics may be explored with an interdisciplinary approach. Possible topics include Medieval literature, the Golden Age, Romanticism and Realism in Spain and Latin America, the Modernist movement in Latin America, 20th century poetry, Lorca and the avant-garde, the Latin American novel or short story, the literature of the Civil War and Franco Spain, the theme of honor in Spanish literature, dramatic revisions of Spanish history in modern Spanish theatre. Depending on topic, this course may fulfill the major requirement as either a course in the literature of Spain or in the literature of Latin America. Prerequisites: Either two Spanish courses at the 300 level, one at the 400 level, or consent of instructor. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor when topics are different. Fulfills Global Cultural Diversity Requirement.

470-479
INTERNSHIP  

N80-N89
INDEPENDENT STUDY 
Recent studies include literary, linguistic, and cultural topics and themes such as urban problems as reflected in the modern novel.

490-491
INDEPENDENT STUDY FOR DEPARTMENTAL HONORS