Review Topics for Exam One Physical Chemistry II 331W
Spring 2005 Lycoming College Dr. Mahler
Please note that almost all of the ‘discussion questions’ are useful (i.e. the first several exercises for each chapter);
Chapter 24, Sections 24.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6.
Kinetic Theory of ideal gases; Molecular motion in gases; Various speeds (mean, rms, etc.); Mean free path, collision flux and collision frequency; Effusion and Graham’s Law; Flux and the three transport properties of ideal gases – diffusion, thermal conductivity, viscosity (and their coefficients and units); Molecular motion and viscosity in liquids; Conductance and (molar) conductivity, limiting molar conductivity, strong and weak electrolytes; Kohlrausch’s Law, law of independent migration of ions, degree of ionization, ˙, or deprotonation, and Ostwald’s Law.
Chapter 24: Exercises 5, 8, 9 (mean speed, mean free path, collision frequency), 11 (collision flux), 12 (effusion), 14 (thermal conductivity), 16, 17 (effusion), 28 (limiting molar conductivity).
Chapter 25, all sections (1-8, except 8b)
Kinetics - some lab techniques for measuring it (real time, flow, and stopped flow methods, flash photolysis, quenching, isolation and initial rates methods); rate, stoichiometric number and rate of formation/consumption; rate laws, rate constant (and units), order (overall and of individual species, indefinite order); differential and integrated rate laws (0th, 1st, 2nd order); half-lives and k; Reactions approaching equilibrium - relaxation and temperature jump method; Arrhenius equation and parameters (activation energy and frequency factor), temperature dependence of rate;. Reaction Mechanisms; Elementary reactions – molecularity; observed vs. predicted (theoretical) rate laws; Consecutive elementary reactions; Three assumptions used to determine rate laws from mechanisms: rate determining step, steady state approximation, pre-equilibrium (plus uses, conditions of each); Kinetic isotope effect (primary and secondary) and causes; Unimolecular reactions and the Lindemann-Hinshelwood mechanism, assumptions needed to make it first and second order.
Chapter 25: Exercises 6, 7, 8 (rates, rate laws, rate constants), 9, 10 (orders of reaction), 11 (1st order), 12 (2nd order), 14 (skip – too involved), 15 (3rd order), 16 (Arrhenius parameters), Problems 1 (experiment to rate law), 12, 18 (mechanisms).
The practice problems are also useful here.