Review Sheet for Physical Chemistry I 330, Exam One, Lycoming College, Fall 2006, Dr. Mahler
Chapter One (all sections) States of gases, equation of state; p, V, T, n – units and how to measure these; diathermic, adiabatic, isobar, isochore, isotherm; Ideal Gas law and constant, and laws in it (Boyle's, Charles', Avogadro's); SATP and STP; Molecular motion in gases, Kinetic Theory of Gases, root mean square speed; Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics; Real gases - repulsive and attractive forces, compression factor Z and molar volume; other equations of state (van der Waals, virial); critical point and constants (p, V, T); principle of corresponding states.
Exercises 1.1 (Ideal and van der Waals Gas Laws), 2 (Boyle’s Law), 3 (Ideal Gas Law), 8 (Density of gases, IGL), 10 (Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures, mole fractions, IGL), 13 (van der Waals, IGL), 16 (Z, vdW), 18 (Dalton’s, IGL), 21 (Principle of Corresponding States).
Chapter Twenty One (section 1) Molecular motion in gases, Kinetic Theory of Gases; Maxwell distribution and types of molecular speed; collision-diameter and, collision-cross section, collision-frequency, and mean-free path.
Exercises 21.1 (mean speed), 2 (mean speed, mean free path, collision frequency), 4 (mean free path),5 (collision frequency), 6 (mean free path).
Chapter Two (all sections) Definitions basic to Thermodynamics (system, surroundings, open, closed, isolated, energy, work, heat, diathermic, adiabatic, exothermic, endothermic, etc.); First Law of Thermodynamics and internal energy (U); State functions; Expansion work, types (free, (isothermal) reversible, against constant pressure); Reversible vs. irreversible processes and equilibrium; Calorimetry and thermochemistry; Enthalpy (heat at constant pressure), relation to U and temperature dependence; Heat capacities at constant pressure and volume; adiabatic changes, work, P,V, T; standard enthalpy changes and Hess' law, thermochemical equations; Standard enthalpies of formation; stoichiometric numbers; Kirchoff's law and enthalpy temperature dependence; ) State functions and exact differentials; partial derivatives and their properties; partial derivative properties for all systems and for ideal gases, and their relations (heat capacities CP and CV, internal pressure˙T, expansion coefficient ˙, isothermal compressibility ˙T, (isothermal) Joule-Thomson coefficient ˙ and ˙T, and inversion temperature); temperature dependence of enthalpy.
Chapter 2: Exercises 2.2 (pV work), 3 (work and q,˙U, ˙H), 4 (isochoric heat), 7 (pV work of a reaction), 10 (adiabatic rev. work), 14 (adiabatic w, q, ˙U, ˙H, ˙T), 17, 18, 21, (Hess’ Law, ˙H of formation), 28 (Born-Haber cycle – more thermochemical equations).
Chapter Three (sections 1, 2a) Entropy– spontaneity, Second Law of Thermodynamics, dispersal of energy, time’s arrow, definition of S.
Chapter Seven (sections 5, 6, 7, 8) Electrochemistry ; redox chemistry, half reactions, anode, cathode, cell reaction, Nernst equation, standard potentials (voltages). Ions and Electrochemistry; Properties of Ions in solution (mean ionic activity coefficient); Debye-Hückel limiting law; Electrochemical cells & their conventions and definitions; Half cells and half reactions; Electrochemical relations (Nernst equation, standard potentials).
Chapter 7: Exercises 7.14 (electrode & cell rxns), 15, (devise cells to get rxns), 16 (Nernst,˙G).