*Review Sheet
for Physical Chemistry I 330, Exam Two, Lycoming College, Fall 2005, Dr.
Mahler*

** **

**Chapter One** (all sections) States of gases; p, V, T,
n and how to measure these; Ideal Gas law and laws in it (Boyle's, Charles',
Dalton's, Avogadro's); Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics; Real gases - repulsive and
attractive forces, compression factor; other equations of state (van der Waals,
virial); critical point and constants (p, V, T); principle of corresponding
states.

**Chapter Twenty Four** (section 1) Molecular motion in
gases Kinetic Theory of Gases; Maxwell distribution and types of molecular
speed; collision- diameter, -frequency, -cross section, and mean-free path.

**Chapter 24**:
Exercises
24.4 (mean speed), 5 (mean speed, mean free path, collision frequency), 7 (mean
free path). Note 8 and 9 are also good practice.

**Chapter Two **(all sections) Definitions basic to
Thermodynamics (system, surroundings, open, closed, isolated, energy, work,
heat, diathermic, adiabatic, exothermic, endothermic, etc.); First Law of
Thermodynamics and internal energy (U); State functions; Expansion work, types
(free, (isothermal) reversible, against constant pressure); Reversible vs.
irreversible processes and equilibrium; Calorimetry and thermochemistry;
Enthalpy (heat at constant pressure), relation to U and temperature dependence;
Heat capacities at constant pressure and volume; adiabatic changes, work, P,V,
T; standard enthalpy changes and Hess' law, thermochemical equations; Standard
enthalpies of formation; stoichiometric numbers; Kirchoff's law and enthalpy
temperature dependence.

**Chapter Three** (all
sections) State functions and exact differentials; partial derivatives and their
properties; partial derivative properties for all systems and for ideal gases,
and their relations (heat capacities C_{P} and C_{V}, internal
pressure π_{T}, expansion coefficient α, isothermal compressibility κ_{T},
(isothermal) Joule-Thomson coefficient μ and μ_{T}, and inversion
temperature); temperature dependence of enthalpy.

**Chapter 3**: Exercises 3.9 (partial derivative proof),
12a&b (partial derivatives), 13, 18 (Joule-Thomson coefficient). Problems 3.12,
13, 14, 24 (more partial derivative proofs).

**Chapter Four** (all sections) Second Law of
Thermodynamics; spontaneous change, order-disorder, and entropy; definition and
properties of entropy; applications of entropy - adiabatic processes, phase
transitions (Trouton's rule), Clausius inequality, expansion of ideal gas,
variation with temperature); Carnot cycle, engines, refrigerators and their
efficiencies; Third Law of Thermodynamics and Nernst Heat theorem; Third law
entropy and standard reaction entropies; Low temperatures and magnetic ways to
reach them; Helmholtz, A, and Gibbs, G, (Free) Energies; A and maximum work; G
and maximum non-expansion work; standard Gibbs energy of formation and
reaction.

**Chapter 4**: Exercises 4.4 (ΔS rev. heat transfer), 6
(ΔS ideal gas heated, const. P), 8 (rev. adiabatic compression), 10 (ΔS, q
reversible or not?), 11 (ΔH & ΔS cooling, const P), 12 (ΔS isothermal expansion
ideal gas), 14 (ΔS two liquids at diff. T_{i}), 16 (non-rev. adiabatic
exp.), 18, 20 (ΔS and ΔG of rxn), 22 (ΔG from ΔS and ΔH), 24 (ΔS for
simultaneous heating and compression of ideal gas), 26 (heat engine efficiency).

** **

**Chapter Five** (all
sections) The fundamental equation (combining First and Second laws); Maxwell
equations and other partial derivative relationships - VAT of UGly SHiPs; G
variation with P and T; Thermodynamic equation of state; Gibbs-Helmholtz
equation; chemical potential; fugacity and pressure, real and ideal gases

**Chapter 5**:
Exercises 5.4 (Maxwell & partials), 5 (ΔG isothermal ideal gas expansion),
7, 12 (ΔG pressure change, incompressible substance);
Problems 5.5, 6 (deriving Maxwell, side relations), 7, 8 (partial proofs galore).

**Chapter Six **(sections 1,
2, 3) One-component system phase diagrams and definitions (triple point,
critical point, normal, etc.); interpreting phase diagrams (real examples);
simple phase rule.

**Chapter 6**: All of the assigned homework is from later in the chapter, but
you should be able to write about phase diagrams and if given data construct a
simple phase diagram or if given a simple phase diagram get data from it.

Electrochemistry is fair game now for Exam Two, so here it is:

**Chapter Ten **(sections
2, 3, 4, 5)** **Ions and Electrochemistry; Properties of Ions in solution
(mean ionic activity coefficient); Debye-Hückel limiting law; Electrochemical
cells & their conventions and definitions; Half cells and half reactions;
Electrochemical relations (Nernst equation, standard potentials).

**Chapter 10**: Exercises
10.8 (ionic strength), 12 (mean ionic activity coeff.), 18 (electrode & cell
rxns), 19 (devise cells to get rxns), 20, 21 (E° calcs), 24 (Nernst, ΔG).