*Review Sheet
for Physical Chemistry I 330, Lycoming College, Fall 2004, Dr. Mahler*

** **

**Chapter One** (all sections) States of gases; p, V, T,
n and how to measure these; Ideal Gas law and laws in it (Boyle's, Charles',
Dalton's, Avogadro's); Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics; Real gases - repulsive and
attractive forces, compression factor; other equations of state (van der Waals,
virial); critical point and constants (p, V, T); principle of corresponding
states.

**Chapter Twenty Four** (section 1) Molecular motion in
gases Kinetic Theory of Gases; Maxwell distribution and types of molecular
speed; collision- diameter, -frequency, -cross section, and mean-free path.

**Chapter 24**:
Exercises
24.4 (mean speed), 5 (mean speed, mean free path, collision frequency), 7 (mean
free path). Note 8 and 9 are also good practice.

**Chapter Two **(all sections) Definitions basic to
Thermodynamics (system, surroundings, open, closed, isolated, energy, work,
heat, diathermic, adiabatic, exothermic, endothermic, etc.); First Law of
Thermodynamics and internal energy (U); State functions; Expansion work, types
(free, (isothermal) reversible, against constant pressure); Reversible vs.
irreversible processes and equilibrium; Calorimetry and thermochemistry;
Enthalpy (heat at constant pressure), relation to U and temperature dependence;
Heat capacities at constant pressure and volume; adiabatic changes, work, P,V,
T; standard enthalpy changes and Hess' law, thermochemical equations; Standard
enthalpies of formation; stoichiometric numbers; Kirchoff's law and enthalpy
temperature dependence.

**Chapter Three** (all
sections) State functions and exact differentials; partial derivatives and their
properties; partial derivative properties for all systems and for ideal gases,
and their relations (heat capacities C_{P} and C_{V}, internal
pressure π_{T}, expansion coefficient α, isothermal compressibility κ_{T},
(isothermal) Joule-Thomson coefficient μ and μ_{T}, and inversion
temperature); temperature dependence of enthalpy.

**Chapter 3**: Exercises 3.9 (partial derivative proof),
12a&b (partial derivatives), 13, 18 (Joule-Thomson coefficient). Problems 3.12,
13, 14, 24 (more partial derivative proofs).

**Chapter Four** (all sections) Second Law of
Thermodynamics; spontaneous change, order-disorder, and entropy; definition and
properties of entropy; applications of entropy - adiabatic processes, phase
transitions (Trouton's rule), Clausius inequality, expansion of ideal gas,
variation with temperature); Carnot cycle, engines, refrigerators and their
efficiencies; Third Law of Thermodynamics and Nernst Heat theorem; Third law
entropy and standard reaction entropies; Low temperatures and magnetic ways to
reach them; Helmholtz, A, and Gibbs, G, (Free) Energies; A and maximum work; G
and maximum non-expansion work; standard Gibbs energy of formation and
reaction.

**Chapter 4**: Exercises 4.4 (ΔS rev. heat transfer), 6
(ΔS ideal gas heated, const. P), 8 (rev. adiabatic compression), 10 (ΔS, q
reversible or not?), 11 (ΔH & ΔS cooling, const P), 12 (ΔS isothermal expansion
ideal gas), 14 (ΔS two liquids at diff. T_{i}), 16 (non-rev. adiabatic
exp.), 18, 20 (ΔS and ΔG of rxn), 22 (ΔG from ΔS and ΔH), 24 (ΔS for
simultaneous heating and compression of ideal gas), 26 (heat engine efficiency).

** **

**Chapter Five** (all
sections) The fundamental equation (combining First and Second laws); Maxwell
equations and other partial derivative relationships - VAT of UGly SHiPs; G
variation with P and T; Thermodynamic equation of state; Gibbs-Helmholtz
equation; chemical potential; fugacity and pressure, real and ideal gases

**Chapter 5**:
Exercises 5.4 (Maxwell & partials), 5 (ΔG isothermal ideal gas expansion),
7, 12 (ΔG pressure change, incompressible substance);
Problems 5.5, 6 (deriving Maxwell, side relations), 7, 8 (partial proofs galore).

**Chapter Six **(all sections
but 9b and 10b) One-component system phase diagrams and definitions (triple
point, critical point, normal, etc.); interpreting phase diagrams (real
examples); simple phase rule; equilibrium and chemical potential - phase
transition boundaries; Clapeyron and Clausius-Clapeyron equations; Ehrenfest
classifications; Surfaces – surface tension, bubbles, cavities and droplets,
capillary action. **Chapter 6**: Exercises 6.4 (Clausius-Clapeyron), 5, 8 (Clapeyron),
11 (Clausius-Clapeyron), 12 (Clapeyron), try 14 (droplet pressure); Problem 6.3
(Clapeyron and Clausius-Clapeyron comparison).

**Chapter Seven **(all sections but 8)** **
Mixtures; Partial molar quantities - volume and chemical potential; Mixing and
its thermodynamics; Liquid solutions - ideal, ideal-dilute, Raoult's and Henry's
Laws; Colligative properties (b.p. elevation, f.p. depression, osmotic
pressure); activity - solvent and solute in terms of mole fraction and molality.
**Chapter 7: **Exercises 7.4 (Partial Molar Volume), 6, 7 (Henry’s Law), 8,
10, 11 (colligative properties), 12, 13 (mixing), 15 (Henry’s Law), 21 (chemical
potential and activity).

** **

**Chapter Eight** (all sections)** ** Multiple
component phase diagrams and the Phase Rule (component, constituent, phase,
variance - degree of freedom); Two component systems; Liquid-Vapor systems:
pressure-composition diagrams (interpretation, tie line, isopleth, lever rule);
temperature-composition diagrams (fractional distillation and theoretical
plates, azeotropes, immiscible liquids); Liquid-liquid systems (miscibility,
upper and lower critical temperatures); Liquid-Solid systems (eutectics,
compounds, congruent and incongruent melting, immiscible solids); **Chapter 8:**
Exercises 8.4, 6 (composition of liquid and vapor), 9 (components and
constituents), 12, 13, 14, try 15, 16 (solid-liquid phase diagrams), 17
(liquid-vapor phase diagrams), 18, 19 (solid-liquid phase diagrams).

**Chapter Nine **(all sections)** **Spontaneous
Chemical Reactions and Equilibrium; Extent of reaction and Gibbs energy minimum;
Equilibrium constant, reaction Quotient (Q), relations to G; LeChatelier's
Principle - response of K and systems at equilibrium to changes in composition,
pressure and temperature (van't Hoff equation); Applications of Equilibria
(brief acid-base chemistry). **Chapter 9**: Exercises 9.5 (ΔG from K), 7, 8,
10, 15, (degree of dissociation, ΔG from K, van’t Hoff), 16 (K from ΔG), 17, 18
(van’t Hoff, Le Chatelier), 19 (ΔG, ΔH, ΔS from K and van’t Hoff).

**Chapter Ten **(sections
2, 3, 4, 5)** **Ions and Electrochemistry; Properties of Ions in solution
(mean ionic activity coefficient); Debye-Hückel limiting law; Electrochemical
cells & their conventions and definitions; Half cells and half reactions;
Electrochemical relations (Nernst equation, standard potentials). Cell potential
and Gibbs Free Energy, Equilibrium constant, electrochemical series, solubility
product K_{sp}.

**Chapter 10**: Exercises
10.5 (K_{sp}), 8 (ionic strength), 12 (mean ionic activity coeff.), 15 (K_{sp}),
18 (electrode & cell rxns), 19 (devise cells to get rxns), 20, 21 (E° calcs), 24
(Nernst, ΔG), 29 (Nernst), 32 (K_{sp}).

**Chapter Nineteen**
(sections 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) Statistical Thermodynamics; Configurations and
weights, dominating configuration; Boltzmann distribution, β; the molecular
partition function and its interpretation; Internal energy, U, and q and β;
Entropy,S, and q; Canonical ensemble, configurations, weight, canonical
distribution function, Q.

No assigned homework, discussion exercises helpful.

**Chapter Twenty**
(sections 1 and 2) Thermodynamic functions in terms of statistical
thermodynamics: internal energy, entropy, Helmholtz, pressure, enthalpy and
Gibbs; General contributions to the molecular partition function: translational,
rotational, vibrational, and electronic modes. No assigned homework, discussion
exercises helpful.