Biology (BIO)

Professor: Zimmerman
Associate Professor: Gabriel, Newman
Assistant Professors: Briggs, Broussard, Morrison (Chairperson), Zhao

The Department of Biology offers a Biology major that can be applied to either the Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Sciences degrees. The Biology major can be completed by following one of four tracks, Anatomy and Physiology, Ecology, Cell and Molecular Biology or Comprehensive. The Department also offers minors in Biology and Environmental Science.

The Biology Major

To complete the major, students must complete BIO 110, 111, and one of the four tracks listed below. In addition, students must successfully complete CHEM 110, 111 and 220; and two units of mathematical sciences chosen from CPTR125 or above, MATH 109, 115, 123, 127, 128 or above. Juniors and seniors are required to successfully complete four semesters of BIO 349/449 (non-credit colloquium) and complete the capstone experiences described below. Enrollment in student teaching and/or other similar off-campus academic experiences will be accepted by the department in lieu of that semester's colloquium requirement. Only two Biology courses numbered below 221 may count toward the major. Declared Biology majors may substitute BIO 106 for BIO 110, and BIO 107 for BIO 111 with written consent of the department chair.

Comprehensive Biology Track: students must complete BIO 222, 224, 225, 321, 323 and one additional biology course from any of the three groups listed below. 

Cell and Molecular Biology Track: students must complete BIO 222, 435, either 432 or 437 and one additional course from each of the three groups listed below. 

Ecology Track: students must complete BIO 224, 225, either 334 or 336, two additional courses from Group 3 and one course from Group 1 below.

Anatomy and Physiology Track: students must complete BIO 222, 323, 338, one course from Group 3 (BIO 333 is recommended), and two courses chosen from among BIO 321, 347, BIO/CHEM 444.

Group 1 - Cell & Molecular Biology
BIO 222 Genetics
BIO 337 Neurobiology
BIO 347 Immunology
BIO 348 Endocrinology
BIO 432 Genome Analysis
BIO 435 Cell Biology
BIO 437 Molecular Biology
BIO 439 Medical Genetics
BIO 444  or CHEM 444 Biochemistry
BIO 447 Cell & Molecular Biology Research Methods

Group 2 – Organismal Biology
BIO 225 Plant Science
BIO 321 Microbiology
BIO 323 Human Physiology
BIO 334 Invertebrate Zoology
BIO 336 Vertebrate Biology
BIO 338 Human Anatomy
BIO 341 Developmental Biology
BIO 346 Virology
BIO 431 Histology
BIO 440 Parasitology and Medical Entomology

Group 3 - Ecology & Evolution 
BIO 224 Ecology
BIO 328 Aquatic Biology
BIO 329 Tropical Marine Biology
BIO 333 Medicinal & Poisonous Plants
BIO 340 Plant Animal Interactions
BIO 342 Animal Behavior
BIO 430 Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrates
BIO 436 Evolution
BIO 446 Plant Physiological Ecology

Writing Intensive Courses

The following courses, when scheduled as W courses, count toward the writing intensive requirement: BIO 200, 222, 224, 321, 333 and 435.

Capstone Experiences for Biology Majors

In order to graduate, all biology majors must demonstrate to the Department their command of biology by meeting the following three criteria.

1. Practical Experience: All students must complete at least one of the experiences in the following list: Internship, Practicum, BIO 447, Relevant Summer Experience, Independent Studies, Honors, Medical Technology Internship, Teaching Semester, Biology Laboratory Assistant, Biology-related volunteer work. (Summer experiences, Biology-related volunteer work, or working as a lab assistant must be approved by the Department in order to be used to meet this requirement.)

2. Research & Presentation Component: All junior and senior majors are required to successfully complete Biology Colloquia (BIO 349 and 449) during all their semesters on campus. During their final year, students will research a biological topic and make an oral presentation at the Biology Colloquium. This will provide the student with the basic level of information literacy in the biological science.

3. Assessment: All majors are required to pass a Biology Department Exit Exam.

Certification in Secondary Education

A Biology major interested in becoming certified at the secondary level to teach Biology and/or General Science must select the Comprehensive Track.  The student should, as early as possible, consult the current Department of Education Teacher Education Handbook and should make their plans known to their advisor and the Chair of the Education Department so the required courses can be scheduled before the Professional Semester.  Please check with the Education Department for the most current PA State requirements.

The B.S. Degree

To qualify for the B.S. degree, Biology majors must complete the major described above and pass three additional courses chosen in any combination from the following: BIO 328 or above (including BIO 400, 401 and/or 470), CHEM 221 or above, PHYS 225 or above, or MATH 127 or above.

Cooperative Programs

Certain specific exceptions to the Biology major will be made for students in accelerated programs. The requirements for accelerated programs in Optometry, Forestry or Environmental Studies, Medical Technology and Podiatry can be found in the Academic Program section of the catalog.

Students interested in these programs should contact the program director before finalizing their individual programs.

Minors

The Department of Biology offers two minors: Biology and Environmental Science.

A minor in biology requires the completion of four courses numbered 200 or higher, with their appropriate prerequisites (i.e., two introductory biology courses). At least two of these must be from the series of courses BIO 222, 224, 225, 321 or 323.

A minor in Environmental Science consists of two introductory biology courses (one of which must be BIO 220), BIO 224, two additional courses numbered 200 or higher, one course in economics (recommended ECON 225), and ASTR 102.

Biology majors who minor in Environmental Science must complete all requirements of the biology major. In addition, they need to complete BIO 220, BIO 401, ECON 225, ASTR 112, and one course selected from either ANTH 229 or an advanced biology course (328 or higher).

Clean Water Institute

This institute is designed to provide a forum for the natural resource heritage of North Central Pennsylvania, the Susquehanna River and its major tributaries (Pine, Loyalsock, Lycoming and Muncy Creeks). The institute provides a service not only to Lycoming College students, through coordination of Environmental internships, practica (BIO 401) and independent study/honors projects, but also the community. This may include seminars or workshops on environmental issues as well as monitoring assistance to watershed groups.

000
SEMINAR IN BIOLOGICAL EDUCATION
Each student planning to teach Biology in secondary schools attends a series of seven seminars, conducted prior to student teaching, during the spring semester of the junior year. These seminars are conducted by members of the biology faculty. In addition to pertinent teaching issues, students are also exposed to procedures for laboratory set up and maintenance, and safety procedures for students and materials in a laboratory. Special arrangements will be made for non-degree students. Non-credit course.

106
CELLS, GENES AND SOCIETY
This course investigates the roles cellular phenomena, genes and biotechnology play in everyday life. The primary goal of this course is to improve recognition and understanding of the implications of biology in health care, agriculture, law, bioethics and business. Credit may not be earned for both BIO 106 and 110. BIO 106 is not a prerequisite for BIO 107. Three hours of lecture and one-three hour lab per week.

107
ANATOMY FOR HEALTH CARE CONSUMERS
This course is a brief survey of human anatomy and physiology, which includes study of the complementary nature of form and function, as well as study of the levels of biological organization within the body. The objective is to provide students with a background which will allow them to read, comprehend, and appreciate current articles on this subject in the popular press. Students learn the names, structure, and general functions of the major organs of the body. Animal dissection is optional. Credit may not be earned for both BIO 107 and 111. BIO 106 is not a pre-requisite for BIO 107. Three hours of lecture and one-three hour laboratory per week.

109
NATURAL HISTORY OF DINOSAURS
This course explores the origin, evolution, and extinction of dinosaurs with emphasis on paleobiology and paleoecology of the Mesozoic Era. This course covers fundamental paleontological and evolutionary principles, dinosaur anatomy and behavior, physiology, dinosaur-bird relationships, diversity and the history of dinosaur paleontology. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory per week.

110
INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY I
An introduction to the study of biology designed for students planning to major in the sciences. Major topics considered include a survey of biochemistry, cell biology, genetics, development and evolution. Credit may not be earned for both BIO 106 and 110. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory per week.

111
INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY II
An introduction to the study of biology designed for students planning to major in the sciences. Major topics considered include a survey of eukaryotic diversity mammalian anatomy and physiology, animal behavior, ecology and evolution. Prior completion of BIO 110 is recommended, but not required. Credit may not be earned for both BIO 107 and 111. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory per week.

200
THE 4TH AND 5TH KINGDOMS
While food, oxygen and medicines are all necessary for human existence, the importance of plants and fungi are often ignored by our society. Plants and fungi play an essential role in our planet's ecology and are central in human cultural evolution. Topics covered by this course include the ways plants and fungi work, how humans have used plant and fungal products for their benefit and pleasure through out history, and how different phytochemicals can influence human health. We also examine human impacts on plant and fungal biodiversity, how we have altered the environment in our quest for food and the perfect American lawn, and the impacts of genetic engineering. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory per week. This course does not count towards the biology major.

220
ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY
This course provides an introduction to ecological principles and concepts with an examination of the biological basis of contemporary environmental problems. The effects of human population on earth's resources are studied against a background of biological and health sciences as they relate to Environmental Sustainability.  The course includes such topics as recycling, availability of food, processing of solid waste, alternative energy, clean air, and clean water.  Three hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory per week. This course is not a substitute for BIO 110 or 111 for Biology majors.

222
GENETICS
A general consideration of the principles governing inheritance, including treatment of classical, molecular, cytological, physiology, microbial, human, and population genetics. Three hours of lecture and two two-hour laboratory periods per week. Prerequisites: BIO 110-111.

224
ECOLOGY
The study of the principles of ecology with emphasis on the role of chemical, physical, and biological factors affecting the distribution and succession of plant and animal populations and communities. Included are field studies of local habitats as well as laboratory experimentation. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: BIO 110-111.

225
PLANT SCIENCES
A survey of the structure, development, function, ecology, taxonomic divisions and human uses of plants. The course includes four general topic areas: form, including plant cellular structure, plant morphology and plant anatomy; function, concentrating on photosynthesis and plant nutrition; distinguishing among different plant divisions and plant identification techniques; and human uses of plants and historical implications of several different plants and fungi. Three hours of lecture and one three hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: BIO 110 and 111.

321
MICROBIOLOGY
A study of microorganisms. Emphasis is given to the identification and physiology of microorganisms as well as to their role in disease, their environmental roles, and industrial applications. Three hours of lecture and two two-hour laboratory periods per week. Prerequisites: BIO 110 and 111.

323
HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
The mechanisms and functions of systems, including the autonomic, endocrine, digestive, cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, nervous, and reproductive systems. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: BIO 110-111.

328
AQUATIC BIOLOGY
A field-oriented course dealing with freshwater ecosystems. Studies include a survey of the plankton, benthos, and fish—as well as the physical and chemical characteristics of water that influence their distribution. Several local field trips and an extended field trip to a field station familiarize students with the diversity of habitats and techniques of limnologists. Alternate years. Prerequisites: BIO 110-111.

329
TROPICAL MARINE BIOLOGY
A field-oriented course where students study the creatures of the fringing reefs, barrier reefs, lagoons, turtlegrass beds and mangrove swamps at a tropical marine laboratory. Studies include survey of plankton, invertebrates, and fish as well as the physical and chemical characteristics that influence their distribution. Prerequisites: BIO 110-111. Alternate May terms.

333
MEDICINAL AND POISONOUS PLANTS
An overview of plants, fungi and bacteria that produce physiologically active substances important to humans and animals because of their toxic and/or medicinal qualities.  Major themes include: basic nutritional requirements of humans, types of phytochemicals and their generalized actions, and a survey of organisms known to make chemicals.  The organismal survey includes toxicity symptoms, and known mechanisms of how toxic/medicinal chemicals interfere with physiological functions of organisms consuming them.  The course utilizes a problem-solving approach.  Laboratory topics include plant classification and identification of plants with potential activity on other organisms. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: BIO 110 and 111, or consent of instructor.

334
INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY
Comparative study of the invertebrate phyla with emphasis on phylogeny, physiology, morphology, and ecology. Two three-hour lecture/laboratory periods per week. Prerequisites: BIO 110-111. Alternate years.

336
VERTEBRATE BIOLOGY
A biological survey of the vertebrates including aspects of morphology, physiology, behavior, ecology, and evolution. Issues of conservation and biodiversity are also addressed. Laboratories will focus on the field biology of Pennsylvania vertebrates and on dissections to emphasize comparative anatomy. Three hours of lecture and one four-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: BIO 110 and 111. Alternate years.

337
NEUROBIOLOGY
A survey of fundamental principles in neurobiology, including the cell biology of the neuron, action potentials, synaptic transmission, organization of sensory and motor systems, neuronal development and pathfinding, and plasticity in the nervous system.  Students also explore neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, depression, addiction, and problems with learning and memory.  Includes student discussion and presentation of original scientific literature.  Three hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory per week.  Prerequisites:  BIO 110 and 111. Alternate years.

338
HUMAN ANATOMY
The objective of this course is to provide, through lectures and dissection studies, a comprehensive overview of the structural, functional and developmental anatomy of the human body.  Particular consideration is given to the bony structures, vasculature, innervation, musculature and the relationships of the various structures to one another.  Students learn the general form, location, and relationships of these features and acquire a vocabulary essential for future studies.  This course provides a detailed knowledge of the body regions and integrates a basic understanding of embryology and surface anatomy with the study of the human cadaver.  Three hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: BIO 110 and 111.

340
PLANT ANIMAL INTERACTIONS
An investigation of different herbivorous animals, plant defenses, how plants influence animals and animal evolution, and how herbivores influence plants and plant evolution. Topics include the evolution of plants and problems associated with an herbivorous lifestyle, effects of herbivory on individual plants and communities, how animals deal with plant defenses and potentially use them for their benefit, the advantages and disadvantages of monophagous and polyphagous lifestyles, strategies of carnivorous plants, and mutualisms such as pollination and seed dispersal. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: BIO 110 and 111, or consent of instructor. Alternate years.

341
DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
A study of the development of vertebrates from fertilization to the fully formed fetus with an emphasis on the role of gene expression in embryo and organ development.  Laboratory includes such topics as chick embryo and zebrafish development and micro-injection techniques. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: BIO 110 and 111. Alternate years.

342
ANIMAL BEHAVIOR
A study of causation, function, evolution, and biological significance of animal behaviors in their normal environment and social contexts. Three hours of lecture and one four-hour laboratory each week. Prerequisites: BIO 110-111. Alternate years.

346
VIROLOGY
An introduction to the study of viruses. The course covers virus anatomy and reproduction, diseases caused by viruses, modern treatments of viral infections and viral vaccines produced by recombinant DNA and other technologies. Course content also includes a description of how viruses are used as tools for genetic engineering and for studying cellular processes like membrane signal transduction, regulation of genetic expression and oncogenesis (cancer). Four hours of lecture per week. Prerequisites: BIO 110-111 or consent of instructor. Alternate years.

347
IMMUNOLOGY
The course introduces concepts concerning how pathogens cause disease and how host organisms defend against infectious diseases. Characterization of and relationships between antigens, haptens, and antibodies are presented. Other topics include: immediate and delayed hypersensitivities (i.e. allergies such as hay fever and poison ivy), immunological renal diseases, immunohaematology (blood groups, etc.), hybridoma technology, the chemistry and function of complement, autoimmunity, and organ transplant rejection phenomena. Laboratory experiments include: agglutination, immunoprecipitations, ELISA assays, immunofluorescence, immunoelectrophoresis, complement fixation, and Western blotting. Three hours of lecture, one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: BIO 110-111. Alternate years.

348
ENDOCRINOLOGY
This course begins with a survey of the role of the endocrine hormones in the integration of body functions. This is followed by a study of the control of hormone synthesis and release, and a consideration of the mechanisms by which hormones accomplish their effects on target organs. Two three-hour lecture/laboratory periods per week. Prerequisites: BIO 110-111. Alternate years.

400
BIOLOGY PRACTICUM
A work-oriented experience for junior or senior biology majors jointly sponsored by the Department and a public or private agency. The practicum is designed to integrate classroom theory with field or laboratory practice. In addition to attendance at a weekly seminar, students spend 10-12 hours per week at the sponsoring agency. Academic work includes, but is not limited to: a log, readings, recitation and an assigned research paper related to the specific agency's activities. May be repeated once for credit with consesnt of instructor.

401
ENVIRONMENTAL PRACTICUM
A work-oriented experience for junior or senior students interested in environmental science. Students work on projects jointly sponsored by the Clean Water Institute and a public or private agency. The practicum is designed to integrate classroom theory with field and/or laboratory practice. In addition to attendance at a weekly seminar, students spend 10-12 hours per week at the sponsoring agency or project. Academic work includes, but is not limited to a log, readings, recitation and an assigned research paper related to the specific agency or project activity. May be repeated once for credit with consent of instructor.

430
COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF VERTEBRATES
Detailed examination of the origins, structure, and functions of the principal organs of the vertebrates. Special attention is given to the progressive modification of organs from lower to higher vertebrates. Three hours of lecture and one four-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: BIO 110-111. Alternate years.

431
HISTOLOGY
A study of the basic body tissues and the microscopic anatomy of the organs and structures of the body which are formed from them. Focus is on normal human histology. Three hours of lecture and one four-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: BIO 110-111. Alternate years.

432
GENOME ANALYSIS
This course examines the genomes of humans, other animals, plants, and microbes to identify characteristics unique to specific groups as well as genomic features shared by multiple groups. The application of this information in the fields of medicine, environmental biology, and evolution is emphasized. The laboratory integrates experiments at the lab bench with a substantial bioinformatics component. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: BIO 110, 111 and 222. Alternate years.

435
CELL BIOLOGY
An intensive study of the cell as the basic unit of life. Topics include: origins of cellular life, biochemistry of the cell, enzymatic reactions, cellular membranes, intracellular communication, the cell cycle, the cytoskeleton and cell motility, protein sorting, distribution and secretion. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: BIO 110-111 and one semester of organic chemistry. Alternate years.

436
EVOLUTION
The study of the origin and modification of life on earth. Topics discussed include molecular evolution, population genetics, gene flow, natural selection, sexual selection, kin selection, neutral theory, extinction, coevolution, and the evolution of man. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: BIO 110, 111, or consent of instructor. Alternate years.

437
MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
An in-depth analysis of fundamental cellular information flow processes with particular emphasis on how these processes have been applied in the laboratory, resulting in technologies such as DNA cloning and sequencing, the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), genetic testing, gene therapy, and synthetic biology. Three hours of lecture, and one-hour laboratory per week.. Prerequisites: BIO 110, 111 and 222. Alternate years.

439
MEDICAL GENETICS
This course is concerned with the relationships of heredity to disease. Discussions will focus on topics such as chromosomal abnormalities, metabolic variation and disease, somatic cell genetics, genetic screening, and immunogenetics. Laboratory exercises offer practical experiences in genetic diagnostic techniques. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: BIO 110-111. Alternate years.

440
PARASITOLOGY AND MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY
The biology of parasites and parasitism. Studies on the major groups of animal parasites and anthropod vectors of disease involve taxonomy and life cycles. Emphasis will be made on parasites of medical and veterinary importance. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: BIO 110-111. Alternate years.

444
BIOCHEMISTRY
Emphasis is given to protein structure, function and regulation; the structure and metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids; integration of metabolism; and biochemical control mechanisms, including allosteric control, and signal transduction. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisite: CHEM 221, or consent of instructor. Cross-listed as CHEM 444.

446
PLANT PHYSIOLOGICAL ECOLOGY
A study of plant resource acquisition in the face of competing neighbors and the quickly changing global environment. The course focuses on how differences in the environment affect plant water use, carbon dioxide acquisition, light capture and nutrient uptake. Three hours of lecture and one three-hour laboratory per week. Prerequisites: BIO 110-111 and 225. Alternate years.

447
CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY RESEARCH METHODS
This course focuses on the culture and methods of biology research. Students meet twice per week to learn experimental design, good record keeping, ordering/preparation of materials, equipment maintenance, and analyses of primary biology literature. Each student designs and conducts a lab project that can be supervised by any member of the biology faculty. Each student prepares an oral presentation, poster presentation, and a research journal-style paper. Two one-hour seminars and six to eight hours of laboratory work per week. Prerequisites: BIO 110, 111, at least two other biology courses and consent of instructor.

349 & 449
BIOLOGY COLLOQUIUM
This course offers the student a chance to become familiar with research in the biological sciences using techniques such as meeting and talking with active researchers, reading and critically analyzing the current literature, and discussing the ideas and methods shaping biology. Students are required to read and analyze specific papers, actively participate in discussions. Biology majors with junior and senior standing are required to successfully complete colloquim during all semesters on campus except for semesters when student teaching. The grade will be P/F. Non-credit course. One hour per week. Prerequisite: Biology majors with junior or senior class standing.

470-479
INTERNSHIP (See index)
Recent samples of internships in the department include ones with the Department of Environmental Resources, nuclear medicine or rehabilitative therapies at a local hospital.

N80-N89
INDEPENDENT STUDY (See index)
Departmental studies are experimentally oriented and may entail either lab or field work.

490-491
INDEPENDENT STUDY FOR DEPARTMENTAL HONORS (See index)
Examples of recent honors projects have involved stream analysis, gypsy moth research, drug synthesis and testing.